The future is electric!

June ACTION 2019

Hybrid and electric vehicle air conditioning compressor hardware, power controls and diagnostics

For more than 15 years, hybrid and electric vehicles have been using electric air conditioning compressors.  The reason for the use of these air conditioning (A/C) compressors is rooted in the stop-start operation of the hybrid vehicle, or in the fact that an electric vehicle has no engine to rotate an A/C compressor.  Read the whole article Download the magazine

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Posted in #1234yf, ACtion Magazine, Automotive training, Electrical/Electronic, Hybrid, Refrigerants, Training | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Finding yf (2019 Refrigerant Update)

By Steve Schaeber, MACS Technical Editor (May 20, 2019)

©2019 Mobile Air Conditioning Society Worldwide

As part of our continuing effort to document the industry’s changeover to R-1234yf, MACS once again attended the Philadelphia Auto Show to see the new models, open a few (actually all of the) hoods, and see what refrigerant is being used. This year we skipped a few brands we knew had already changed, and scoped out those we had missed in previous years, as well as some we were really curious about. Here’s what we found.

  • Since dealers sold the last R-134a Jeep (Patriot MK74) in 2018, and now having converted the remaining “old” minivans (Caravans built on the RT platform were supposed to be discontinued but have held on due to high fleet demand), the only remaining FCA model that has yet to be yf converted is the Abarth 124 Spider, which we don’t expect will happen anytime soon. It’s built in Japan by Mazda and finished by Abarth in Italy, so until Mazda converts (any) of its vehicles over to yf (this one’s a cousin to the MX-5 Miata), we expect it to remain R-134a for the time being.
  • The only newcomer we saw from Ford was the Transit Connect van, which is made in Europe and has been the subject of controversy for some time as many are imported as passenger cars and later converted to avoid a 25% US tariff.
  • Mitsubishi may only sell three models in the US, but one of them holds the all-time record for the lowest refrigerant charge of any newly manufactured vehicle. Mirage uses only 9.5 ounces of R-134a! Eclipse and Outlander use yf.
  • We didn’t check any of the BMW models as they switched their entire lineup for 2018. Same goes for all JLR (Jaguar Land Rover) and Minis. We also tied off other brands that have fully switched this year, including Alfa Romeo, Chrysler, Dodge, GMC, Jeep, Lincoln and VW.
  • We could only find two holdouts (without verifying Volvo and Infinity), and not surprisingly they are Mazda and Mercedes. The latter makes sense, as there was quite a controversy over the new refrigerant more than 5 years ago that included MB recalling 432 SL-Class yf vehicles through US dealers back in 2012. And now that EPA’s MY2021 cutoff has officially been revoked, there’s a real possibility that we may not see Mercedes use yf in the States for many years (if ever). As it stands now the only reason they would want (or need) to switch is if they really need the CO2 credits (which most manufacturers of large, heavy vehicles with big engines need to meet EPA targets). But Daimler is in a unique position as they build some of the most expensive, high-end luxury vehicles in country, and as such they command a premium which likely includes a few dollars to “purchase credits” from other OEMs who have extra to sell (such as those who focus on smaller, lighter, more fuel-efficient vehicles with smaller engines, hybrids and/or BEVs). Mazda on the other hand is just exactly that. 2019 Mazdas average 28.2 mpg with their lowest (CX-9) getting 23. Meanwhile MB models average only 20.9 mpg, and with both around 2% market share, you’re not dealing with huge offsets anyway.
  • Acura converted ILX, MDX and RDX production over to yf, but not all variants. MDX hybrids still use R-134a with ND-OIL11 (POE). And now that Honda uses yf in the HR-V, they have only to change Fit to complete their lineup.
  • Hyundai switched a big portion of their systems this year, too. Santa Fe, Sonata, Tucson, and Veloster now use yf, which gives Hyundai a 2/3 internal majority. And in most likelihood, two of the models we saw with R-134a (Elantra and Santa Fe XL) were probably built right before the factory switch to yf, considering that Elantra GT and Santa Fe base already use it. If that’s the case, they saved hybrid models for last to switch, and as we’ve seen with others, this too makes sense given their added complexity.

Note: If you’re a regular reader of my “Service Port” column in MACS ACtion® Magazine, you may have noticed that we didn’t include our usual chart in the April 2019 issue, and the reason is simple: It’s just too big! This year we decided to list out every make and model that we’ve been following over the years, and compile one master list that includes exactly what you’ve been asking for: what uses what. So we’re posting it here on our MACS WordPress BLOG, along with this expanded version of the print article. And while you’re here, make sure you check out the other A/C articles we’ve posted as well.

Thanks for reading!

Oh, and by the way, this article, and the contents of the chart below are (as all MACS works are…) ©2019 Mobile Air Conditioning Society Worldwide. So, PLEASE don’t copy our work and try to pass it off as your own (you know who you are). That’s called plagiarism, and you’ve been told not to do that since you were in grade school. It’s not nice to steal from others, so you shouldn’t do it, and also, it’s just plain wrong. Thanks!


Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS) Worldwide
MY2019 Cumulative Refrigerant Survey
By Steve Schaeber, MACS Technical Editor
318 Total # of vehicles surveyed
138 Total # using R-134a 43.40%
180 Total # using R-1234yf 56.60%
Make Model Refrigerant
Acura ILX Premium R-1234yf
Acura MDX AWD A-Spec R-1234yf
Acura MDX Sport Hybrid Advance R-134a
Acura RDX SH-AWD Advance R-1234yf
Acura RLX Sport Hybrid SH-AWD Advance R-134a
Acura TLX 2.4 R-134a
Acura TLX 3.3 R-134a
Alfa Romeo Giulia Ti Lusso RWD R-1234yf
Alfa Romeo Stelvio AWD R-1234yf
Audi A4 R-1234yf
Audi A5 R-134a
Audi A6 R-134a
Audi A7 R-134a
Audi Q3 R-134a
Audi Q5 S R-1234yf
Audi Q7 R-134a
Audi RS 3 R-134a
Audi TT R-134a
BMW 330 E R-1234yf
BMW 530 E R-1234yf
BMW Alpina B7 R-1234yf
BMW GT 640i (2018) R-1234yf
BMW M2 R-1234yf
BMW M5 R-1234yf
BMW M6 R-1234yf
BMW X2 xDrive 28i R-1234yf
BMW X3 M40i R-1234yf
BMW X5 40e iPerformance R-1234yf
BMW X5 M R-1234yf
Buick Cascada R-134a
Buick Enclave Avenir R-1234yf
Buick Encore R-134a
Buick Envision R-134a
Buick LaCrosse R-1234yf
Buick LaCrosse Avenir R-1234yf
Buick Regal Preferred II Convertible R-1234yf
Buick Regal TourX Preferred Wagon R-1234yf
Cadillac ATS-V R-1234yf
Cadillac CTS-V R-1234yf
Cadillac CT6 R-1234yf
Cadillac Escalade R-1234yf
Cadillac XT5 R-1234yf
Cadillac XTS R-1234yf
Chevrolet Blazer R-1234yf
Chevrolet Bolt EV (Battery Electric) R-1234yf
Chevrolet Camaro R-1234yf
Chevrolet Colorado R-1234yf
Chevrolet Colorado LT Diesel R-1234yf
Chevrolet Corvette R-134a
Chevrolet Cruze Sedan R-1234yf
Chevrolet Equinox R-1234yf
Chevrolet Express Cargo Van R-134a
Chevrolet Impala R-1234yf
Chevrolet Malibu R-1234yf
Chevrolet Silverado 1500 R-1234yf
Chevrolet Silverado HD 2500 R-134a
Chevrolet Silverado 5500 R-134a
Chevrolet Sonic R-134a
Chevrolet Spark R-1234yf
Chevrolet Suburban R-1234yf
Chevrolet Tahoe R-1234yf
Chevrolet Traverse R-1234yf
Chevrolet Trax R-134a
Chevrolet Volt R-134a
Chrysler 200 (2017) R-1234yf
Chrysler 300 R-1234yf
Chrysler 300C R-1234yf
Chrysler Pacifica R-1234yf
Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid R-1234yf
Dodge Caravan (RT) R-1234yf
Dodge Challenger R-1234yf
Dodge Charger R-1234yf
Dodge Charger Daytona R-1234yf
Dodge Dart (2016) R-1234yf
Dodge Durango R-1234yf
Dodge Journey R-1234yf
Fiat 124 Spider Abarth R-134a
Fiat 500 R-1234yf
Fiat 500c Cabrio R-1234yf
Fiat 500e R-1234yf
Fiat 500L R-1234yf
Fiat 500X R-1234yf
Ford C-MAX Hybrid (2018) R-134a
Ford Edge R-1234yf
Ford Escape R-1234yf
Ford Expedition R-1234yf
Ford Expedition MAX R-1234yf
Ford Explorer R-134a
Ford F-150 R-1234yf
Ford F-150 Raptor R-134a
Ford F-250 R-134a
Ford F-350 R-134a
Ford Fiesta R-134a
Ford Flex R-134a
Ford Focus RS (2018) R-1234yf
Ford Focus ST (2018) R-1234yf
Ford Fusion Energi R-1234yf
Ford Fusion Sport R-1234yf
Ford Mustang R-1234yf
Ford Mustang BULLITT R-1234yf
Ford Mustang Convertible R-1234yf
Ford Ranger R-1234yf
Ford Taurus R-134a
Ford Transit R-134a
Ford Transit Connect R-1234yf
Genesis G70 HTRAC 2.0T R-1234yf
Genesis G70 HTRAC 3.3T R-1234yf
Genesis G80 R-1234yf
Genesis G80 Sport HTRAC 3.3T R-1234yf
Genesis G90 5.0 HTRAC R-134a
GMC Acadia R-1234yf
GMC Acadia Denali R-1234yf
GMC Canyon Denali R-1234yf
GMC Sierra 1500 R-1234yf
GMC Sierra Denali 2500 4WD Crew R-134a
GMC Terrain Denali R-1234yf
GMC Yukon Denali R-1234yf
GMC Yukon XL R-1234yf
Honda Accord 2.0T Sport R-1234yf
Honda Accord Hybrid EX-L R-1234yf
Honda Civic 1.5T 4-Door EX R-1234yf
Honda Civic Hatch Sport Touring R-1234yf
Honda Civic Si 2-Door HPT R-1234yf
Honda Civic Type R Touring R-1234yf
Honda Clarity Fuel Cell R-1234yf
Honda Clarity Plug-In Touring R-1234yf
Honda CR-V 1.5T R-1234yf
Honda CR-V 2.4L R-1234yf
Honda Fit R-134a
Honda HR-V R-1234yf
Honda Insight Hybrid Touring R-1234yf
Honda Odyssey R-1234yf
Honda Passport R-1234yf
Honda Pilot R-1234yf
Honda Ridgeline R-1234yf
Hyundai Accent R-1234yf
Hyundai Elantra R-134a
Hyundai Elantra GT Sport R-1234yf
Hyundai Ioniq Hybrid R-134a
Hyundai Kona R-1234yf
Hyundai Palisade R-1234yf
Hyundai Santa Fe R-1234yf
Hyundai Santa Fe XL R-134a
Hyundai Sonata R-1234yf
Hyundai Sonata Hybrid R-134a
Hyundai Tucson R-1234yf
Hyundai Veloster R-1234yf
Infinity Q50 R-134a
Infinity Q50S R-134a
Infinity Q60 R-134a
Infinity Q60S R-134a
Infinity Q70L R-134a
Infinity QX30 R-134a
Infinity QX60 R-134a
Infinity QX80 R-134a
Jaguar E-Pace R-1234yf
Jaguar F-Pace R-1234yf
Jaguar F-Type R-1234yf
Jaguar XE R-1234yf
Jaguar XF R-1234yf
Jaguar XJ R-1234yf
Jaguar XJL R-1234yf
Jeep Cherokee Limited R-1234yf
Jeep Compass R-1234yf
Jeep Gladiator Pickup R-1234yf
Jeep Grand Cherokee R-1234yf
Jeep Grand Cherokee Limited R-1234yf
Jeep Grand Cherokee Overland R-1234yf
Jeep Grand Cherokee Diesel R-1234yf
Jeep Patriot (2017) R-134a
Jeep Renegade Latitude R-1234yf
Jeep Wrangler JL Rubicon R-1234yf
Jeep Wrangler JL Unlimited R-1234yf
Kia Cadenza Premium R-1234yf
Kia Forte LX R-134a
Kia Forte S R-134a
Kia Niro Hybrid R-1234yf
Kia Optima LX R-1234yf
Kia Optima S R-1234yf
Kia Rio 5-door S R-1234yf
Kia Sedona LX R-134a
Kia Sorento R-134a
Kia Sorento EX AWD R-134a
Kia Soul R-1234yf
Kia Soul + R-1234yf
Kia Sportage R-1234yf
Kia Sportage LX R-1234yf
Kia Stinger AWD R-1234yf
Land Rover Discovery Sport HSE R-1234yf
Land Rover LR4 HSE (2016) R-1234yf
Land Rover Range Rover Evoque R-1234yf
Land Rover Range Roger HSE R-1234yf
Land Rover Range Rover Sport HSE R-1234yf
Lexus ES 300h R-134a
Lexus ES350 R-134a
Lexus ES350 F Sport R-1234yf
Lexus GS F R-134a
Lexus GX 460 R-134a
Lexus IS 350F R-134a
Lexus ISF Sport R-134a
Lexus LC 500 R-1234yf
Lexus LS500 AWD R-1234yf
Lexus LX 570 R-134a
Lexus NX300 F Sport R-134a
Lexus NX 300h R-134a
Lexus RC 300 R-134a
Lexus RX 350F R-134a
Lexus RX 450h R-134a
Lincoln Continental R-134a
Lincoln Nautilus R-1234yf
Lincoln Navigator R-1234yf
Lincoln MKC R-134a
Lincoln MKX Black Label (2018) R-134a
Lincoln MKZ R-1234yf
Mazda 3 R-134a
Mazda 6 R-134a
Mazda CX-3 AWD R-134a
Mazda CX-5 R-134a
Mazda CX-9 AWD R-134a
Mazda MX-5 R-134a
Mazda MX-5 Miata RF R-134a
Mercedes A 220 4MATIC R-134a
Mercedes AMG C 43 R-134a
Mercedes AMG CLS 53 R-134a
Mercedes AMG GLS 63 R-134a
Mercedes AMG E 53 R-134a
Mercedes CLA 250 R-134a
Mercedes CLS 450 4MATIC Coupe R-134a
Mercedes E 300 R-134a
Mercedes E 450 4MATIC Wagon R-134a
Mercedes G 550 R-134a
Mercedes GLA 250 R-134a
Mercedes GLC 300 R-134a
Mercedes GLE 43 R-134a
Mercedes GLE 400 R-134a
Mercedes GLS 53 R-134a
Mercedes GLS 450 R-134a
Mercedes S 560 4MATIC Sedan R-134a
Mini Cooper Convertible Euro R-1234yf
Mini Cooper Hardtop 2-door R-1234yf
Mini Cooper S Clubman R-1234yf
Mini Cooper S Countryman R-1234yf
Mini Cooper S John Cooper Works R-1234yf
Mini Cooper S Plug-in Hybrid R-1234yf
Mini Countryman R-1234yf
Mitsubishi Eclipse Cross R-1234yf
Mitsubishi Mirage R-134a
Mitsubishi Mirage SE R-134a
Mitsubishi Outlander 2.4 LE S-AWC R-1234yf
Mitsubishi Outlander 3.0 GT R-1234yf
Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV R-1234yf
Mitsubishi Outlander Sport R-134a
Nissan 370ZX R-134a
Nissan Altima R-1234yf
Nissan Armada R-134a
Nissan Frontier R-134a
Nissan Kicks R-1234yf
Nissan Leaf R-134a
Nissan Maxima SR R-134a
Nissan Murano R-134a
Nissan NV200 R-134a
Nissan Pathfinder R-134a
Nissan Rogue SL R-134a
Nissan Rogue Sport R-1234yf
Nissan Sentra R-134a
Nissan Titan R-1234yf
Nissan Versa R-134a
Porsche Cayenne GTS R-134a
Ram 1500 R-1234yf
Ram 2500 R-134a
Ram 2500 ProMaster Cargo Van R-134a
Ram 3500 R-134a
Ram ProMaster City Wagon R-134a
Subaru Ascent R-1234yf
Subaru BRZ R-134a
Subaru Crosstrek R-134a
Subaru Crosstrek Hybrid Plug-In R-134a
Subaru Forester R-1234yf
Subaru Impreza R-134a
Subaru Legacy R-1234yf
Subaru Outback R-1234yf
Subaru WRX R-134a
Tesla Model 3 R-134a
Tesla Model S R-134a
Tesla Model X R-134a
Tesla Roadster R-134a
Toyota 86 R-134a
Toyota 4Runner R-134a
Toyota Avalon R-134a
Toyota Camry R-1234yf
Toyota CH-R R-1234yf
Toyota Corolla R-134a
Toyota Corolla iM R-134a
Toyota Highlander Hybrid R-134a
Toyota Land Cruiser R-134a
Toyota Prius R-134a
Toyota Prius C R-134a
Toyota Prius Prime R-134a
Toyota RAV4 R-134a
Toyota Sequoia R-134a
Toyota Sienna R-134a
Toyota Tacoma R-1234yf
Toyota Tundra R-1234yf
VW Atlas R-1234yf
VW Beetle R-1234yf
VW Beetle Convertible R-1234yf
VW Golf Alltrack R-1234yf
VW Golf GTI R-1234yf
VW eGolf R-1234yf
VW Jetta R-1234yf
VW Passat R-1234yf
VW Tiguan R-1234yf
Volvo XC60 R-134a
Volvo S60 R-134a
Volvo S90 Momentum R-134a
Volvo T8 Plug-in R-134a
Volvo V90 R-Design R-134a
Volvo XC90 Momentum R-134a

Note: Unless otherwise noted above, all vehicles are 2019 model year.

Except Infinity (2018)

Except Volvo (2018)

Please report any comments, errors or omissions to


Posted in #1234yf, ACtion Magazine, Automotive, MACS Member, Mobile Air Conditioning, Refrigerants, Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Are you making the most of your equipment?

Independent garages have been slow to make the investment in equipment to work on R-1234yf systems, and many car dealers’ service departments couldn’t be happier about that.  When the car manufacturers, whose products they sell, began the changeover, new recovery/recycle/recharge (RRR) machines became essential dealer equipment purchases.  In many areas this has given the car dealers a near monopoly on servicing R-1234yf systems, meaning their higher operating costs have not been affected by independent garage competition.  One industry observer cited examples of dealers assessing labor charges of several hundred dollars simply to evacuate and recharge a system, plus earning a healthy profit on the refrigerant…Read this article.

Read the whole issue

Posted in #1234yf, ACtion Magazine, Automotive, Automotive training, MACS Member | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Heavy duty truck and off-road training digest

By Dr. Alex Moultanovsky

The MACS session began with Dan Spurgeon of CAT who introduced the new Track-Type Tractor D6. Dan pointed out that the D6 is equipped with a completely new design HVAC system called Conditioner Group, which is mounted outside the cab. This Group is a combined heat and A/C system built as a compact, low profile box, with improved reliability, high performance, reduced service time and optimized to meet A/C, heating, defrosting and sound level targets. Condenser group, part of Conditioner Group, is easily removable (when required) as a single unit. Mr. Spurgeon explained that condenser fans are reversible and they, as well as the blower, are brushless. Speed of fans is adjustable based on ambient and heat load.

Next, the speaker presented the 120 Motor Grader. Its Conditioner Group is also mounted outside on the back of the cab (in the previous version the system was located under seat). Benefits of this group are very similar to the D6 machine group. However, he noted that the motor grader’s air ducting system, which is very complicated, provides excellent air distribution to the cab. These two, as well as most other CAT HVAC systems, have common software, and typically for such control systems in different machines, are very similar. They can control everything: blower speed, fans, compressor, condenser fans, variety of sensors, etc.
The second part of the CAT presentation was on selection of an alternate refrigerant for off-highway machines. Spurgeon pointed out that the Paris climate agreement (specifically for R-1234yf refrigerant) was adopted by EU and 120 other countries, including the U.S., Canada and Australia. He advised the audience that CAT completed the R-1234yf technical and manufacturing solution; system design is in process and the dealer network isn’t started yet. He concluded that new CAT R-1234yf machines will be available within the near future.


Leo Chernyavsky of CNH covered cab pressurization and CNH machine service updates. Most of CNH equipment operates in a very dusty environment, indicating that very important issues are cab sealing, air filtration and cab pressurization. Leo pointed out that the operator’s comfort zone lies between 50pa and 200pa with fresh air about 43m3/hr. Pressurization requires appropriate cab sealing and fresh air delivery, as well as a pressure relief method and control method. He said that the cab leakage curve always must be between min/max acceptable cabin pressure.

(Read more…)

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Cars with a different gas (R-415B)

By Steve Schaeber, MACS Technical Editor

Some Chinese vehicles are being shipped to South America with a different type of refrigerant gas than what most technicians are used to seeing. In this case it’s a blend refrigerant called R-415B.

Sightings of vehicles with this refrigerant were first reported to MACS early in 2017 by members in Montevideo, the capital and largest city of Uruguay, South America’s second smallest country.

20170208_162912Marketed in Uruguay as the “Glory”, this 7-passenger, unibody MPV is manufactured by Dongfeng Xiaokang Automobile Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of DFM (Dongfeng Motor Corporation) in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

20170208_162759 - CopyUnderhood vehicle information label shows it’s powered by the Chongqing Xiaokang 109-horsepower, 1.5-liter, 4-cylinder engine.

20170208_162752R-415B is an HCFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) zeotropic blend refrigerant, consisting of 25% R-22 and 75% R-152a. It is a Class-II ODS (Ozone Depleting Substance) with an ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) of 0.013, and as such is controlled under the Montreal Protocol.

It also has a GWP (Global Warming Potential) of 550, meaning it’s 550 times “more of a global warming gas” than CO2 (Carbon Dioxide).

So far we don’t know much about the system, and we haven’t been able to connect a refrigerant identifier to verify the refrigerant’s composition. We also don’t know about the exact type of compressor oil that they’re using, which is a big question among local technicians. They also want to know if any other vehicles or brands are using R-415B refrigerant, but to date we haven’t heard of any others.

We’ve also been asked if the R-22 component will attack the hoses and seals, but without knowing the specific suppliers and components that are involved, we simply don’t know to whom these questions should be asked. Too many variables are in play, like:

  • What type of hoses are being used?
  • How are they constructed?
  • What is the oil type?
  • How does it interact with the refrigerant?
  • What material was used to make the seals?
  • Who manufactured the compressor?

But we did find out that the service port connectors are the same type as those used for R-134aand without the proper service equipment (and a supplier for the gas), it’s likely that R-134a will be used as a replacement when necessary.

Technicians should use caution when servicing these systems however, as the R-152a component is flammable.

Please contact MACS at if you have any questions, or if you have any technical information about this system that you’d like to share with the Society. Thanks!

About MACS Worldwide, the Mobile Air Conditioning Society:

Founded in 1981, MACS is the leading non-profit trade association for total vehicle climate and thermal management.

Since 1991, MACS has assisted more than 1 million service technicians to comply with the 1990 U.S. EPA Clean Air Act requirements for Section 609 certification in refrigerant recovery and recycling to protect the environment. The Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS) Worldwide’s mission is clear and focused, as the recognized global authority on mobile air conditioning and heat transfer industry issues. It is a mission we have been fulfilling for our growing global membership and the industry in the following ways:

  • Providing accurate, unbiased technical training, and compliance programs for the mobile air conditioning and heat transfer industry.
  • Providing a forum for exchange of trade information on a regional, national and international basis.
  • Facilitating business between all segments of the industry.
  • Providing tangible value for members, such as product marketing, promotion and money-saving affinity programs.
  • Disseminating legislative, regulatory and trade information (including data, current developments and training materials).
  • Providing information on legislative and regulatory initiatives that affect the industry and advocate for the industry to legislative bodies.

MACS represents a growing global membership, and is affiliated with MACPartners (EU) and Vehicle Air Conditioning Specialists of Australia (VASA)

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MACS to Sponsor Automotive Software & Electronics Boot Camp with Dr. Mark Quarto

The Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS) Worldwide is pleased to sponsor the Automotive Software and Electronics Boot Camp with Dr. Mark Quarto Quarto in partnership with FutureTech Auto at the MACS training center in Lansdale, PA September 16-20, 2019.

Top auto repair shops need to learn relevant new skills related to electronics, computer software writing, and coding to tackle today and tomorrow’s repair jobs.


The automotive industry has transitioned most automotive systems into the space of advanced electrical, electronics, and software controls.  Additionally, hybrid/electric propulsion and ADAS technologies are requiring technicians to become creative and skilled in non-mechanical aspects of the vehicle.  Even modern HVAC systems have experienced advances in power electronics with the use of high voltage electric heating, air conditioning, and heat pump components.


Dr. Quarto has addressed the need for higher level electronics training for technicians by creating the Automotive Software and Electronics Boot Camp, an intense five-day training opportunity that will allow students to go back to their jobs having learned the following:


  • Know differences and specific functions of software, firmware, and hardware systems.
  • Learn fundamental knowledge and skills to build microcontroller-based control applications and hardware interface tools that can be used for monitoring, analyzing and/or diagnosing most automotive systems.
  • Learn how to use electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, op-amps, opto-isolators, voltage translators, logic ICs etc. to create diagnostic & testing tools with hands-on projects.
  • How electronic devices can be used to augment vehicle circuits and the scan tool for testing or diagnosing system faults.
  • Create and build signal conditioning tools to interface vehicle systems with a microcontroller by using hands-on projects.
  • How to write software programs to perform specific diagnostic and testing routines that can be used with/without a scan tool.
  • How to code software programs to command a microcontroller to perform functions to monitor, control, or test circuits.
  • Learn how to create microcontroller systems that can be built for use with a scan tool or on-board vehicle system to manipulate systems operation for the purposes of circuit analysis and diagnostics without the need for purchasing expensive test tools.

To register for this exclusive program visit or call 360-207-7770

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Are you ready for A/C season?

Reviewing the fundamentals: Pressures

We started out with a brief review of A/C system pressure testing order to build up to the major point of the class which was the effect of variable displacement compressor solenoids on temperature and pressure testing. Typical pressure readings for the following conditions reviewed were;

  • Low Charge / Leak
  • Over Charged
  • Ice in System
  • Blockage in System
  • Compressor Fault

Are you ready for A/C season? Download the MACS ACTION April 2019 Issue

Posted in #1234yf, ACtion Magazine, Automotive, Automotive training, MACS Member, Mobile Air Conditioning | Leave a comment

Do you know how to find coolant leaks?

Finding Coolant Leaks

Some days, around this time of year, it feels like all we do is chase down coolant leaks. Maybe that has something to do with weather patterns and large swings in ambient temperature. It may also relate to how well customers take care of their vehicles, how often they take them in for service, or the replacement parts they use. Regardless of the reason, such repairs must be made, and finding out the cause needs to happen quickly and accurately. Read this article. Download the entire magazine.

Posted in #1234yf, #off road vehicles, ACtion Magazine, Automotive, Hybrid, Mobile Air Conditioning, Training | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

A Conversation with Ward Atkinson on A/C history & GM

By Steve Schaeber, MACS Technical Editor

In this video (see link below), MACS technical advisor Ward Atkinson discusses the early days of mobile A/C development, and some of his experiences while working at GM (specifically the Chevrolet Division of General Motors) during the 1950s, 60s and 70s. He also talks about the development and testing of various system designs and components, such as CCOTs (cycling clutch orifice tubes), TXV (thermal expansion valves), STV (suction throttling valves), POA (pilot operated absolute pressure) valves and series reheat systems. Ward also talks about his first involvement with MACS, our founder Simon Oulouhojian, the Montreal Protocol, replacing R-12 with R-134a, the Ozone Layer and the US EPA Environmental Protection Agency.


Ward started his career at General Motors in the spring of 1952 when he was hired by Chevrolet Engineering to work on the first front-mounted air conditioning system, then destined for the new 1955 Chevrolet Bel Air. He spent the next 30 years working on A/C and engine cooling at GM before retiring in 1981. He then founded Sun Test Engineering, where he consulted with many of our industry’s largest and most well-known OE and Tier 1 manufacturers, working with them to improve their component and system designs, and overall A/C system performance (with the ultimate goal of providing the vehicle owner / operator with the best heating and cooling performance at the best price.

Ward also spent more than 60 years working with the SAE ICCSC (Interior Climate Control Standards Committee, formerly the Society of Automotive Engineers “Defroster Committee”), where he helped write sections of FMVSS103 (the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard # 103 for windshield defrosting and defogging systems), acted as Chairman for a number of years, and has written many technical articles for both MACS and SAE. He is still active in the industry, and continues to work as technical adviser to MACS Worldwide, the Mobile Air Conditioning Society. Ward was honored for his many years of service by SAE in 2014 and as an “Industry Pioneer” by MACS in 2003.

During the MACS 2016 Training Event and Trade Show in Orlando, Florida, Ward sat down with MACS’ Steve Schaeber to record the following video.

Here’s a link to watch the video on MACS YouTube Channel:

And if you like the video, Please SUBSCRIBE. Thanks!

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Possible new EPA regulation coming in 2019

By Steve Schaeber, MACS Manager of Service Training

Those of you who have been following MACS WordPress BLOG know that much has taken place regarding refrigerant regulations in the last few years. Our recent saga started back in 2015 when the US EPA issued Rule # 20. Following that rule (in fact, the very next day) refrigerant manufacturers Mexican and Arkema sued the EPA over its requirement to stop using R-134a in new vehicle production beginning with MY2021. They thought the rule was unfair because the only practical alternative OEM car makers had was to switch over and use the new R-1234yf refrigerant, subject to many patents preventing them from making it.


The way they went about the court case was to say that EPA did not have the authority to regulate HFCs because the original clean air act only specified CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances. Since Congress never gave EPA authority over these global warming gases (as is proposed by the recent Paris accord and Kigali amendments to the Montreal Protocol, which Congress has not yet ratified), EPA is not allowed to regulate them.


Federal Judge Brett Kavanaugh and two others agreed with Mexichem and Arkema, effectively throwing out that part of Rule # 20 back in August of 2017. Since then there has been appeals, with the most recent going to the US Supreme Court. However, as Kavanaugh is now an Associate Justice, the highest court declined to hear the appeal making the lower court’s rule stand.


In the meantime, EPA issued Rule # 21 in September 2017, which gave us our current refrigerant regulations (the purchase restriction) among others such as self-sealing cans. The rule primarily affected Section 608 and was widely supported by industry, so nobody’s thought it would become an issue.


And it hasn’t really, except that EPA is now reconsidering some of those regulations. Although we primarily live in the 609 world here with respect to mobile A/C, we are still affected by what happens with 608 (which includes EPA’s refrigerant management program, under which it regulates the purchase all refrigerants).

This brings us up to date with what’s been going on. But the story’s not over yet.


Back in September of this year, EPA issued a proposed rule (Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Revisions to the Refrigerant Management Program’s Extension to Substitutes). In it they plan to revisit regulations pertaining to HFCs and other substitute refrigerants. Most of these would have the biggest effect on technicians and companies who work in the commercial / residential / industrial refrigeration markets, such as those technicians who service rooftop air conditioners on office buildings, warehouses, and residential home central air conditioning units.


However, there is one line in the proposed rule which could affect those who work in mobile A/C. The line simply says, “EPA is also taking comment on whether, in connection with the proposed changes to the legal interpretation, the 2016 Rule’s extension of subpart F refrigerant management requirements to such substitute refrigerants should be rescinded in full.” That’s a mouthful, but basically it means that EPA is considering whether it should rollback the rule requiring technician certification to purchase mobile A/C refrigerants (like R-134a and R-1234yf), along with the requirement for small can manufacturers to install self-sealing valves in those cans.


Should EPA decide to move forward with this rule, anyone would be allowed to purchase mobile A/C refrigerant (with the exception of R-12 which is statutory under the original clean air act).


And while it would also rescind the self-sealing valves, we don’t expect to see them go away. Can makers spent huge sums of money changing over their production lines to manufacture self-sealing cans, and market prices have already adjusted to the change.


So, at the time of this writing (December 2018), we don’t know exactly what’s going to happen. We expect to hear some news from EPA early next year, perhaps during the Industry Update on February 22 at the MACS 2019 Training Event and Trade Show in Anaheim, California. Either way, stay tuned to MACS’ website and the MACS WordPress BLOG for updates on this issue.


Posted in #1234yf, MACS Member, Mobile Air Conditioning, Refrigerants | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment