Do you know how to find coolant leaks?

Finding Coolant Leaks

Some days, around this time of year, it feels like all we do is chase down coolant leaks. Maybe that has something to do with weather patterns and large swings in ambient temperature. It may also relate to how well customers take care of their vehicles, how often they take them in for service, or the replacement parts they use. Regardless of the reason, such repairs must be made, and finding out the cause needs to happen quickly and accurately. Read this article. Download the entire magazine.

Posted in #1234yf, #off road vehicles, ACtion Magazine, Automotive, Hybrid, Mobile Air Conditioning, Training | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

A Conversation with Ward Atkinson on A/C history & GM

By Steve Schaeber, MACS Technical Editor

In this video (see link below), MACS technical advisor Ward Atkinson discusses the early days of mobile A/C development, and some of his experiences while working at GM (specifically the Chevrolet Division of General Motors) during the 1950s, 60s and 70s. He also talks about the development and testing of various system designs and components, such as CCOTs (cycling clutch orifice tubes), TXV (thermal expansion valves), STV (suction throttling valves), POA (pilot operated absolute pressure) valves and series reheat systems. Ward also talks about his first involvement with MACS, our founder Simon Oulouhojian, the Montreal Protocol, replacing R-12 with R-134a, the Ozone Layer and the US EPA Environmental Protection Agency.


Ward started his career at General Motors in the spring of 1952 when he was hired by Chevrolet Engineering to work on the first front-mounted air conditioning system, then destined for the new 1955 Chevrolet Bel Air. He spent the next 30 years working on A/C and engine cooling at GM before retiring in 1981. He then founded Sun Test Engineering, where he consulted with many of our industry’s largest and most well-known OE and Tier 1 manufacturers, working with them to improve their component and system designs, and overall A/C system performance (with the ultimate goal of providing the vehicle owner / operator with the best heating and cooling performance at the best price.

Ward also spent more than 60 years working with the SAE ICCSC (Interior Climate Control Standards Committee, formerly the Society of Automotive Engineers “Defroster Committee”), where he helped write sections of FMVSS103 (the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard # 103 for windshield defrosting and defogging systems), acted as Chairman for a number of years, and has written many technical articles for both MACS and SAE. He is still active in the industry, and continues to work as technical adviser to MACS Worldwide, the Mobile Air Conditioning Society. Ward was honored for his many years of service by SAE in 2014 and as an “Industry Pioneer” by MACS in 2003.

During the MACS 2016 Training Event and Trade Show in Orlando, Florida, Ward sat down with MACS’ Steve Schaeber to record the following video.

Here’s a link to watch the video on MACS YouTube Channel:

And if you like the video, Please SUBSCRIBE. Thanks!

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Possible new EPA regulation coming in 2019

By Steve Schaeber, MACS Manager of Service Training

Those of you who have been following MACS WordPress BLOG know that much has taken place regarding refrigerant regulations in the last few years. Our recent saga started back in 2015 when the US EPA issued Rule # 20. Following that rule (in fact, the very next day) refrigerant manufacturers Mexican and Arkema sued the EPA over its requirement to stop using R-134a in new vehicle production beginning with MY2021. They thought the rule was unfair because the only practical alternative OEM car makers had was to switch over and use the new R-1234yf refrigerant, subject to many patents preventing them from making it.


The way they went about the court case was to say that EPA did not have the authority to regulate HFCs because the original clean air act only specified CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances. Since Congress never gave EPA authority over these global warming gases (as is proposed by the recent Paris accord and Kigali amendments to the Montreal Protocol, which Congress has not yet ratified), EPA is not allowed to regulate them.


Federal Judge Brett Kavanaugh and two others agreed with Mexichem and Arkema, effectively throwing out that part of Rule # 20 back in August of 2017. Since then there has been appeals, with the most recent going to the US Supreme Court. However, as Kavanaugh is now an Associate Justice, the highest court declined to hear the appeal making the lower court’s rule stand.


In the meantime, EPA issued Rule # 21 in September 2017, which gave us our current refrigerant regulations (the purchase restriction) among others such as self-sealing cans. The rule primarily affected Section 608 and was widely supported by industry, so nobody’s thought it would become an issue.


And it hasn’t really, except that EPA is now reconsidering some of those regulations. Although we primarily live in the 609 world here with respect to mobile A/C, we are still affected by what happens with 608 (which includes EPA’s refrigerant management program, under which it regulates the purchase all refrigerants).

This brings us up to date with what’s been going on. But the story’s not over yet.


Back in September of this year, EPA issued a proposed rule (Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Revisions to the Refrigerant Management Program’s Extension to Substitutes). In it they plan to revisit regulations pertaining to HFCs and other substitute refrigerants. Most of these would have the biggest effect on technicians and companies who work in the commercial / residential / industrial refrigeration markets, such as those technicians who service rooftop air conditioners on office buildings, warehouses, and residential home central air conditioning units.


However, there is one line in the proposed rule which could affect those who work in mobile A/C. The line simply says, “EPA is also taking comment on whether, in connection with the proposed changes to the legal interpretation, the 2016 Rule’s extension of subpart F refrigerant management requirements to such substitute refrigerants should be rescinded in full.” That’s a mouthful, but basically it means that EPA is considering whether it should rollback the rule requiring technician certification to purchase mobile A/C refrigerants (like R-134a and R-1234yf), along with the requirement for small can manufacturers to install self-sealing valves in those cans.


Should EPA decide to move forward with this rule, anyone would be allowed to purchase mobile A/C refrigerant (with the exception of R-12 which is statutory under the original clean air act).


And while it would also rescind the self-sealing valves, we don’t expect to see them go away. Can makers spent huge sums of money changing over their production lines to manufacture self-sealing cans, and market prices have already adjusted to the change.


So, at the time of this writing (December 2018), we don’t know exactly what’s going to happen. We expect to hear some news from EPA early next year, perhaps during the Industry Update on February 22 at the MACS 2019 Training Event and Trade Show in Anaheim, California. Either way, stay tuned to MACS’ website and the MACS WordPress BLOG for updates on this issue.


Posted in #1234yf, MACS Member, Mobile Air Conditioning, Refrigerants | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Made in America?

By Keith Leonard, Esquire

The United States and Mexico reached a trade agreement in August of this year. This deal has been publicized as a renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the trade agreement that took effect on January 1, 1994 among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Under NAFTA, by 2008, tariffs were eliminated progressively, and all duties and quantitative restrictions, with the exception for certain agricultural products traded with Canada, were also eliminated. In mid-September, Mexico indicated it is inclined to go ahead with such a bilateral trade pact even if no agreement can be reached with Canada.

In May 2017, the United States Trade Representative informed Congress that the President intended to negotiate with Canada and Mexico with respect to (the) NAFTA. Though, as of the writing of this column, no significant new trade deal has been reached with Canada, nor is there a new trade deal with Mexico. Bear in mind that the largest importer of motor vehicles into the United States is Canada, and the fastest growing major importer of motor vehicles in 2017 was Mexico. Also keep in mind that, as of the first quarter of this year, foreign motor vehicle manufacturers were projected to have made more cars and trucks in the United States than General Motors, Ford and all other U.S. companies. Foreign manufacturers of motor vehicles currently have some twenty-one assembly plants in Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan and Texas.

The foregoing elimination of tariffs under NAFTA was only for products that met specific requirements to qualify as being made in North America. Under current NAFTA rules, in order to qualify for duty-free treatment, 62.5 percent of the content of a vehicle has to be from the NAFTA countries. According to the information released by the United States Trade Representative in its fact sheet about the deal with Mexico, that percentage is being raised to seventy-five percent. Thus, it will be more difficult for an automobile to qualify for a zero tariff if not made in North America.

The trade deal further provides that some 40-45 percent of an automobile’s content has to be made by workers earning at least $16 per hour, in order to ensure American producers of automobiles and their workers are better able to compete on an even playing field; labor costs cannot be so substantially dissimilar as to draw manufacturing out of the United States. The United States and Mexico have also agreed to stronger rules of origin than those under both NAFTA 1.0 and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), including regulations for cars, automobile parts, and other industrial products. The NAFTA Rules of Origin are used to determine whether goods originate in one of the three NAFTA territories (United States, Canada, or Mexico). Goods qualify as originating in those territories if the goods are “wholly obtained or produced entirely in the territory of one or more of the parties.” Thus, goods cannot qualify simply by passing through Canada, Mexico, or the United States or by undergoing only minor operations in one of those NAFTA territories.

Similarly, reports suggest there is a provision that would allow the United States to charge tariffs above the normal 2.5 percent tariff rate (which applies to countries that do not have a trade agreement with the United States) for any new auto factories built in Mexico. In an interview in mid-September, Mexico’s finance minister indicated that Mexico has insulated its auto industry against any such U.S. tariff increase by signing a side agreement that “locked in” the current low 2.5 per cent tariff rate.


American-made vehicles are also largely insulated from tariffs, but what qualifies a vehicle as American made? Under the American-made index created by, assembly in the United States is a critical component of eligibility to be an American-made vehicle. The five major factors used to determine the economic impact of a given model are assembly location, domestic-parts content as determined by the American Automobile Labeling Act, engine sourcing, transmission sourcing and factory jobs provided by each automaker’s American plants. Another index compiled by American University’s School of Business uses the following seven criteria — profit margin, labor, research and development, inventory, engine, transmission, and body, chassis, and electrical components. So, is your decision to buy a certain vehicle affected by its economic impact on America and its workers, or some other factor(s)?

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Technician training yields competitive edge

Marriott Ananheim_LAXAH

“Current technologies for thermal management systems are changing and becoming ever more complex,” explained Peter Bradley in his presentation at MACS 2018 Training Event and Trade Show titled, Future Trends in Thermal Management Systems. Bradley, head of technical service for Behr Hella, then added, “With manufacturers implementing different proprietary systems to achieve the same result, service professionals will have to deal with increasing complexity that will vary from automaker to automaker.
“On the one hand, traditional components are being modified to add complexity that allows them to do something different,” continued Bradley. “On the other, entirely new components we haven’t seen before are being developed and integrated into mobile A/C systems to add increased functionality. Repair shops need to evaluate how they will adapt to these changes, and look to getting the right training and equipment to properly diagnose and service the inbound technologies,” Bradley stressed.
The speaker’s message: “Diagnostics, service and repair will get ever more complex. If you want the competitive edge in your market, the onus is on you to begin preparing now to stay ahead of the technology curve.”
To help give technicians a competitive edge, the 2019 MACS Training Event and Trade Show scheduled for Anaheim, CA, Feb. 21 – 23, is offering 25 industry experts and a total of 35 hours of high-level training for the automotive thermal management system professional. Following are details of the training that will be available.

Thursday, Feb. 21
Passenger car / light truck
Stop/Start Technologies – Engine Shutdown and its Impact on the Climate Control System
Peter Orlando • Carquest Technical Institute
A vehicle slows to a stop and the engine shuts down. The interior warms immediately and the consumer is complaining about this behavior. Is this normal, or is there something truly wrong with the vehicle? Did you know that A/C climate control is one of the main inputs for vehicles equipped with Stop/Start technology? Slight adjustments to climate control settings can impact the Stop/Start frequency and passenger cabin comfort. Having a thorough understanding of how the climate control system effects the operation of the Stop/Start system is essential to profitable service and repairs.

Service Tips and Pattern Failures
Peter McArdle • Four Seasons
Here are just some of the insider insights we will cover in this class on service tips and pattern failures: Importance of condenser airflow in A/C diagnostics • Thermal expansion valve testing • Neat tips for frustration-free dye and electronic small leak detection • The compressor is new, the system is charged and the clutch is engaged, yet high and low side pressures are almost the same. How can this be? • Understanding compressor slugging and how to avoid it • Avoid a comeback: perform an oil audit and understand why the system really failed • Dual evaporator system quick tips • Is the condenser restricted – how can you tell?

Posted in Automotive, Automotive Aftermarket, Automotive training, MACS Member, MACS Training Event, Mobile Air Conditioning, Training | Leave a comment

Meet Jeff Schultz of Schrader Pacific

By Marion J Posen, MACS VP member relations and marketing

Everyone knows the Schrader valve; it’s been around since 1893, and has been used in A/C systems since we haven’t had to open the car windows to stay cool. But few people are aware of the technology and manufacturing complexity used to make these simple little valves. Meet MACS member, Jeff Schultz, the product engineer for Schrader A/C valves. Jeff is the senior product engineer at Schrader in Altavista, Virginia. Jeff, who has been at Schrader for 28-years, helped develop the family of Schrader A/C valves. Jeff is responsible for a variety of engineering improvements in the function and durability of these valves and enhancing their quality.
Jeff explains, “Schrader is, as of September 2018, a part of Pacific Industries. Schrader has been the largest producer of A/C charge and service valves in North America. Pacific Industries has a similar market share of A/C valves in Asia. The combined Schrader Pacific is now the dominant global producer of A/C valves, and so will bring a new level of technological development and technical support to the industry.”
The Schrader U.S. lineup of A/C valves is the broadest in the industry. Schrader produces every style of A/C valve used in the world. Each valve design is engineered, and is produced, for a specific application. These valves, almost 150 million of them a year, will continue to be made right here in the USA, in central Virginia. The production system is highly automated, and includes multiple automated quality checks, including a leak test of every valve to assure that all Schrader valves meet the most stringent original equipment (OE) quality standards.

Jeff Schultz gives MACS Steve Schaeber a tour of Schrader’s plant.

Recently, Jeff gave a plant tour to MACS manager of service training, Steve Schaeber. Steve witnessed the processes used to make the various cores. Jeff showed Steve how the valve components are machined, in specialized, high speed, precision machining centers, some producing as many as 22 million pieces per year. Following thorough washing and nickel plating on some parts in the Schrader plating facility, the components are brought to the valve assembly area. During the assembly operation, which produces two valve cores a second, each valve is subjected to multiple quality checks for dimensions and assembly integrity. Every valve is leak tested ensuring when the (end user) technician pulls a valve out of the box he can be confident it will not need to be replaced again. Schrader produces these A/C valves for the OE vehicle market, but all valves including those for the aftermarket, are made to the same exacting standards.
Jeff started his employment at Schrader in 1991. Jeff had assignments in manufacturing, engineering and quality, as well as product engineering. Jeff helped implement new valve designs supporting the transition from R-12 to R-134a. In addition to his responsibilities at Schrader, Jeff has been active with the SAE Committees responsible for drafting the Standards for A/C systems, helping to assure the valves function effectively in the system. Now, with the transition to R-1234yf, and development of possible R-152a and R-744 systems, A/C valves continue evolving to meet new system needs. Jeff splits his time between the production floor, the test lab and customer meetings. It’s not unusual to find Jeff collaborating with the vehicle engineering team, or the line suppliers, or at one of the vehicle assembly plants assisting with vehicle charging or other build concerns. The current transition to R-1234yf has brought a number of new requirements: higher operating temperatures, new refrigerant oils, and increased system integrity. While the changes to the valves aren’t obvious, there have been a number of new improvements implemented and countless laboratory hours spent in testing to assure that Schrader valves will meet every challenge.
MACS’ importance gains increasingly as A/C systems continue to become more complex, and more differentiated among different refrigerants. As a member of MACS for over 25 years, Schrader has recognized the critical role MACS plays in bringing essential product and system information to the aftermarket service industry. Schrader recognizes that MACS is our best means of talking to the people who use our valves, and know the service issues. We learn from MACS service technicians, and, in turn, we try to provide educational materials through MACS to help educate the industry about the valves.
If you are coming to MACS 2019 Training Event and Trade Show, February 21-23, 2019 at the Anaheim Marriott in Anaheim, California, be sure to visit Jeff and his team in the Schrader booth.

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2018 MACS Service Information Survey

The Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS) was organized to serve the mobile air conditioning industry. MACS’ charter and mission are communication and education. To achieve these goals, the Society has developed training programs and coordinated information between the air conditioning system manufacturers, governmental bodies and the service sector.

In an effort to better understand the current servicing profiles which are being encountered in the field, we are requesting the support of service facilities by responding to a survey which is now active at this link
. Each shop can help by contributing information about their own service experience, thereby providing that overview of general service operations on the two refrigerants.


There are several million R-1234yf mobile A/C systems on the road. However, R-1234yf systems may be requiring minimal servicing and may well still be serviced primarily by the OEM dealerships. To provide a better understanding of the impact of the two major refrigerants being encountered in the service industry, some survey questions are separated for each refrigerant to determine if there are any different servicing trends.


We understand that this survey is asking for a lot of information.  As this industry is experiencing major changes, information collected through this survey may well help shop owners understand where the future of this industry is moving and help inform their decisions regarding future business activities.

Every survey participant will be entered into a drawing for a $100 Visa gift card.


Please watch for this survey being distributed by email on Wednesday, October 3 and respond.

Should you not receive an email survey and wish to participate, request a survey email at


Since 1981, the Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS) Worldwide has been the advocate for service and repair owners, distributors, manufacturers and educators making their living in the total vehicle climate and thermal management industry.

MACS Worldwide empowers members to grow their businesses and delivers tangible member benefits through industry advocacy with government regulators and by providing accurate, unbiased training information, training products, training curriculum and money-saving affinity member services. MACS has assisted more than 1-million technicians to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act requirements for certification in refrigerant recovery and recycling to protect the environment.


To learn more about MACS Worldwide visit our website at

Posted in #1234yf, Automotive Aftermarket, Automotive training, MACS Member, Mobile Air Conditioning, Refrigerants | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment


By Steve Schaeber, MACS Technical Editor

I think I stumbled upon one of the best days to travel by air: Labor Day. Short lines at security, and on the plane I even had the row to myself! In all the years I’ve been flying out of PHL, I’ve never done so on this most revered of American holidays. But this time I gladly made an exception, as I was asked to teach a two-day Mobile A/C “boot camp” of classes for the US Air Force. It was at Hurlburt Field, a rather large base located just off the Gulf Coast in the Florida panhandle, about an hour east of Pensacola.

IMG_20180905_175807624 Hurlburt Field

Specifically, I taught our Mobile A/C Best Practices and Section 609 Certification classes for the men and women of the 823d RED HORSE Squadron, or Rapid Engineer Deployable Heavy Operational Repair Squadron Engineers. This squadron is one of only four active-duty units of its kind in the Air Force. Highly mobile and self-sufficient, their special skills are honed through construction projects for the Air Force, Department of Defense and civilian community.


The group I worked with are those who service and maintain the heavy equipment on base. Machines such as Volvo and CAT excavators, Bobcat T250s, cranes, dump trucks, and even Polaris Rangers, Elgin sweepers and Ford F-250s (painted that deep Air Force royal blue). There were seven gigantic drive-thru bays in the shop where we worked, one of which had a 100,000 lb. parallelogram 8-leg drive-on lift recessed into the floor. Now that’s a heavy lifter!

You may also know that September is hurricane season, and on the day I arrived a tropical storm had just crossed southern Florida which was expected to develop into a hurricane.

In fact, about half way through our first day of classes, base Commanders decided to shut down certain operations (including ours) to enable those who live off base to return to their homes and communities in preparation for Tropical Storm Gordon (some of the storm’s highest winds and heaviest rainfall passed right over Fort Walton Beach and Hurlburt Field). Their strategy allows a safer commute for their Airmen, many of whom also assist with local search and rescue operations.

When classes ended I spent some time touring around the Hurlburt Memorial Air Park on base. I’m a history buff, so for me it’s neat to see first hand the planes and helicopters used to defend our country. An A-26 and B-25 from WWII, and an AC-119, HH-3E and T-28 from Vietnam were among those on the field.

But probably the most striking to me was seeing some of the aircraft used in Iraq and Afghanistan since 2001. It’s strange to think that those battles, which seem to be recent, have taken place so long ago that their aircraft have already been retired in favor of newer, more technologically advanced equipment (the MH-53 Pave Low, retired 2008 and AC-130, retired 2014).

Oh, and about that storm? It never did develop into a hurricane, but we did get lots of rain and wind. But it’s what the storm left behind at the beach and in the sky as it passed that left me in awe. Streaks of clouds, a rumbling surf, and a beautiful pallet of colors that were simply amazing!

Note: Learn more about MACS Worldwide, the Mobile Air Conditioning Society, by visiting our website at for more information. 

Want to learn more about the aircraft at the Hurlburt Field Memorial Air Park? Here’s a link to the official Air Park Guide:

In it, you can also read about First Lieutenant Donald Wilson Hurlburt, after whom the base is named, on page 25, or at this Wikipedia link:

Here’s a link to the main Hurlburt Field website:

Updated: November 14, 2018

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Escalating trade war

By Keith Leonard, Esquire

The current administration has already imposed tariffs on imported steel and aluminum, sparking retaliatory tariffs imposed by multiple countries against goods imported from the United States. The tariffs imposed by the United States were couched as being done in the interest of protecting national security. The administration has now threatened to impose tariffs on automobiles from countries within the European Union (EU). While cars from Mexico and Canada would be particularly hard hit by any such tariffs imposed on cars imported from those countries, the next two countries that exported the largest amount (in terms of US dollars) of passenger cars and light vehicles to the United States in 2017 were Japan and Germany.

National security has again been at the forefront of the rationale for the imposition of tariffs on cars from the EU, with President Trump asserting that the EU was “as bad” as China when it comes to the way European countries trade with the United States. A Section 232 investigation is done under the authority of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 to determine the effect of imports on the country’s national security. The expressed rationale supporting national security concerns is to see whether imports are eroding American industry to the point where they threaten the country’s “internal economy,” including the development of “cutting-edge technologies” and the preservation of a skilled workforce. That statutory authority was the basis for a public hearing before the Commerce Department on July 19, 2018, to assist the Department in determining whether imports of automobiles, including cars, SUVs, vans and light trucks, and automotive parts threaten to impair national security and if so, to then recommend remedies.
The early effects of the escalating trade war are already being seen. Some businesses, including equipment maker Caterpillar, have been able to pass along the increased costs of production to its customers due to strong product demand. However, other American companies, such as Tyson Foods, have announced a decrease in its profit forecasts due to lower meat prices arising from retaliatory duties on exports of United States beef and pork products.

The tariffs being threatened against cars from the EU have brought the automotive industry even farther into the fray. In May of this year, the American Automotive Policy Council issued a statement in which it urged the President to reconsider the tariffs on imported steel and aluminum. That statement read in part: “The imposition of tariffs on our trading partners in the EU, Canada and Mexico will undermine the global competitiveness of the US auto industry and invites retaliation from our trading partners.”

To put things in perspective, passenger vehicle imports are America’s leading import and the largest category of motor vehicle parts (primarily the chassis of vehicles) is the sixth largest import sector. At the same time, passenger vehicle exports are the nation’s third-leading export and parts rank number four. The European Commission has said it will impose levies on nearly $300 billion of U.S. exports to the EU if the Trump Administration proceeds with imposing 20% tariffs on automotive industry imports on national security grounds. In such an event, about $350 billion in trade will be subjected to such tariffs (not taking into account the earlier tariffs on steel and aluminum). Moreover, 2018 is projected to be the first year that foreign manufacturers make more vehicles in the United States than domestic manufacturers.

In a mid-July article in the Wall Street Journal, it was reported that “Auto makers, parts suppliers and dealers are joining forces to push back against the Trump administration’s proposal to apply tariffs of up to 25% on vehicles and components imported into the U.S., contending the administration’s trade policy will backfire and lead to higher prices and lost jobs.” Earlier in July, General Motors similarly warned against such tariffs on EU cars, saying it would raise the prices of its vehicles by thousands of dollars, undermine its competitiveness and lead to job losses in the United States.

Automakers have warned that the tariffs on car imports would raise prices of imported vehicles by up to $6,000 per car and also lift prices of locally made cars. Consider that EU-owned car companies have plants in South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee, all of which are strongly Republican states. Thus, the tariffs’ issue has political implications beyond any espoused trade protectionism.

Remember that laws are constantly changing and are often not uniform throughout the United States. Do not place unqualified reliance on the information in this article. Always contact legal counsel for detailed advice.
If you have a particular issue, law or problem you would like to see addressed in a future column, please contact me at

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There’s no place like AGCO!

By Steve Schaeber, MACS Technical Editor

Although the underlying principles behind what makes mobile A/C work are the same regardless of whether you’re working on a pickup truck, a tractor or the family van, there are differences that make working on agricultural equipment unique and, therefore, special training is required.

That’s exactly what attendees got at the 2018 MACS / AGCO HD and off-road equipment best practices clinic, held on Friday, April 6, 2018 at AGCO’s technical training facility in Hesston, Kansas (Figure 1). Twenty-four technicians attended the class taught by Sherwood Wheeler, AGCO’s supervisor of dealer technical support. Sherwood has been a MACS member for 11 years and is a regular presenter at the annual MACS Training Event in the heavy duty / off-road sessions.

CLICK HERE to read more…

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